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          Barry Meek 

Newsletter May 2018.

Previous Newsletter April 2018

Next meeting Thursday, May 10.

7:30pm, Blair Field Clubhouse.

Vernon Rust Remover

It was held on Saturday May 5.   Dave Jones had called me a few days before and offered me a ride there in his aircraft.   That was an offer I could not refuse!   As it turned out, I took off from Dave's strip shortly before 8am, with Dennis in his Tri Pacer. And I came back with Dave in his PA-14 after the Rust Remover; that sure was different than flying my little Beaver!  I think that those guys are trying to give me the bug to get back into flying!...

There seemed to be a couple hundred people attending, and the speakers were very interesting.

The weather was great; a bit of heat turbulence, but nothing the PA-14 could not handle. It was a bit harder on the relief pilot!...

Some aircraft seem to have not moved for ages, like this Murphy Maverick.

The Secret to Good Landings: Angle of Attack and Airspeed

 By Dan Thomas

Earlier this year we had a look at Angle of Attack, how it changes in various maneuvers, its limits, and how to fly safely by avoiding those limits. This month we'll see how it affects the quality of landings and why so many pilots just can't seem to get decent touchdowns and stopping distances. 

Now, boys and girls, a bit of review: A wing, to support the airplane and its load, needs both airspeed and angle of attack (AoA). If the airspeed is lower, the AoA must be higher, and if the airspeed is high, the AoA will be lower. That's why the airplane's pitch attitude is high when you're in level slow flight, and the attitude is lower in level cruising flight. And it's why too much speed on arrival at the runway makes the airplane's pitch attitude all wrong for touching down safely and neatly. 

The airplane will have a book that will give appropriate speeds for a bunch of maneuvers. Many years ago those books were called Owner's Manuals. Then someone figured they should be called Pilot Operating Handbooks (POH). That became unfashionable and now a new airplane comes with an Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). In the 1950s an Owner's Manual might have been a few pages thick, and that persisted in some factories up until the mid-1970s; we had a '76 Bellanca 7GCBC Citabria that had a four-page manual. These days an AFM is hundreds of pages, mostly due to liability concerns; the owner has to be warned of every possible way he might kill himself, and it takes many pages to do that. The unintended consequence of such verbosity is that few pilots read these things and some don't seem to believe them. When it comes to approach speeds, pilots get comfortable with adding a few knots "for safety," then a few more, and if they're high on approach they just dive at the runway, which adds even more speed. All that velocity makes good landings completely impossible and increases the risk of an accident enormously. 

First, the effect on AoA. As we saw a minute ago, too much speed reduces it. If we arrive at the runway's surface with excessive speed, the airplane's pitch attitude is low, and there are a number of things that can happen here. The nosewheel can contact the runway first, and with the main wheels still off the surface, the airplane's downward movement results in the nose being forced upward, which increases AoA, which makes the airplane lift off again. We call that a "bounce," but it's really an increased AoA that put the airplane back in the air. The pilot's first reaction is to push the nose down; the nosewheel hits again, and up we fly once more. This is called "porpoising," and it breaks a lot of airplanes. Nosewheel structures, firewalls and internal supports all get bent, buckled, broken and torn. Owners' wallets get emptied. Insurance companies and Transport Canada start wondering about pilot competency.  

Here's what it looks like: 

 

 For some more convincing, see this: Bad Landing

  

 A second thing that can arise from too much speed is "wheelbarrowing." If the nosewheel touches down gently enough, it might roll along, and the mains are still in the air. Essentially, we now have a really nasty taildragger. If the pilot is holding the nose on with the elevator, that nosewheel has plenty of traction, and if the airplane swerves even a little, the centre of gravity will make the airplane groundloop. More expensive noises.  At about the 46-second mark in this video, it starts to get away on the pilot, but he raises the nose just in time:

 X Wind Landing followed by Wheelbarrow 

 

 Landing a tricycle-geared airplane flat so that all three wheels touch down at the same time is also a really good way to wear out nosegear steering parts. Very few nosewheels are dynamically balanced like all automobile wheels get when they get new tires, and so they tend to shimmy, which wears out torque links and shimmy dampers and tires. Landing at sane speeds saves that nosegear, since it won't touch down until the speed is quite low. (Nasty shimmy is often cured with a dynamic balance, but machines that can handle aircraft wheels are rare and expensive. I had to build my own.) For an example of shimmy, see this. And also note the flat, fast approach that resulted in a long float of a thousand feet or more:

 C-172 M Nose wheel shimmy

 

That nose gear needs some serious fixing. It doesn't have to do that.

"Ballooning" is a third phenomenon related to excessive speed. The airplane nears the surface, the pilot flares just a hair too much, and the airplane flies upward. It has turned speed into altitude, and if it runs out of speed up there, it is going to come down hard. It might even stall.

Too much speed also has a detrimental effect on stopping distances. The formula for kinetic energy is K=1/2MV^2. Kinetic energy (K) is what we have to dissipate in order to stop, and since we can't easily change the mass (M) of the machine , we have to control the velocity (V). Doubling the velocity quadruples the energy to be dissipated, because of the squaring effect of the formula. Even a 10% increase in speed results in a 21% increase in energy, and a 20% increase in speed gives 44% more energy. That energy has to go somewhere, and we sometimes read of the places it went: All the way down an embarrassingly long runway, maybe right off the end; blown tires, burned brakes, into the trees, and so on. More skill-testing questions from investigators.

And that speed also creates more lift, remember. A landing is not over just because the wheels are on the ground. There is still airflow over that wing, and it is still lifting. Maybe not quite enough to pick up the airplane, but it sure is reducing the weight on the wheels, and those wheels have very little grip on the surface. Too many pilots try to fix fast landings with the  brakes, and aircraft shops make money replacing roasted brakes and flat-spotted tires. None of those things are cheap. Even worse than the cost is the knowledge that personal airmanship could be a lot better. 

Back to the POH or AFM. It gives approach speeds based on gross weight. Those speeds are typically around 1.3Vso, or 1.3 times the airplane's stall speed in the landing configuration. If you're under gross, the speed could be reduced a small bit. Now, if we have a 172 that stalls, at gross, at 48 MPH with the flaps down and power off, the approach speed will be around 62 MPH. The POH might say 65. Whatever. Do you fly that airplane at 65, or do you approach at 75 "just to be safe?" Or 80? At 75 we've added at least 33% more energy, and at 80 we have over 50% more. This is at full flaps, remember; less flap will give different speeds, and different airplanes will have different speeds. Read the OM/POH/AFM. If you still think that the published speeds are too slow, go do some power-off stalls at altitude with an instructor and see what the airspeed indicator says when the airplane stalls. And how much before the actual stall break that the stall warning howls. It might surprise you. Know your airplane. 

There are other factors to consider. The air is disturbed as much as a wingspan away from the airplane in all directions as it moves through the air. When the airplane gets into ground effect (approximately one-half of wingspan above the surface, or within about 18 feet in a 172), drag drops off noticeably. In a low-wing airplane it's even more apparent. The surface is interfering with the formation of the wingtip vortices, which cause drag and destroy some of the lift near the wingtips, and it also reduces the upflow of the airstream immediately ahead of the leading edge, reducing AoA and therefore drag. Both factors tend to reduce the stall speed a little, and add to the runway length we will consume in landing. 

There's a really handy book you should read. If you've learned to fly in the last 30 years or so, you should have seen it. It's the Aeroplane Flight Training Manual, published by Transport Canada, and it has this picture in it:

  

 And there, in that picture, is what seems to be a closely guarded secret: Bleed off the speed before you get into ground effect. Too many pilots approach at 1.3Vso or more, and don't start flaring until they get to within four or five feet of the surface. That's way too low. It leaves the airplane with a lot of speed in a low-drag regime, and the usual result is a too-fast and flat or too-long landing. Look again: At 15 to 30 feet you're pulling back, power off. 30 feet is nearly a wingspan. This initial raising of the nose is called the round-out, and the continued pitch-up just above the surface is the flare. Too many landings leave out the round-out altogether, only flaring near the surface, and it results in the problems we've been talking about. 

The airplane should touch down at minimum controllable airspeed. That will be a speed just a little above stall, and considerably  below 1.3Vso. There's a misconception out there that this is a "full-stall landing." It's not. The airplane is not stalled. We don't want it to stall. We'd lose control in a stall. The nose would drop in a stall, and a wing could drop if there was any yaw or crosswind. If it was stalled, we could lose aileron control in a crosswind landing. If it really was stalled, a sudden gust of wind couldn't pick the airplane up again so easily, and many of us have been there, right? The aircraft's designer set things up so that the wing is not at stall AoA even if the tail touches the runway. Even in a real airplane (a taildragger, of course:-)) the wing isn't stalled. I once measured the chordline of a Citabria’s wing as being at 12 to the surface; the stall AoA is around 17, so we're well short of the stall when we're travelling parallel to the surface in three-point landing attitude. I have flown along in my taildragger with the tailwheel trundling along the runway and the mains in the air, and have seen others do it, too. A stalled three-point attitude would not allow that. (Flying along like that is not recommended, mind you, because you could get the nose high enough to actually stall and break something, but it proves the error of the "full-stall" myth.) And a chirping stall horn doesn't mean we're stalling; they're supposed to be set to sound at five to ten knots or MPH above the actual stall break. That's a pretty good margin. 

"But, but, but..." you say. "If I flare and level off a couple of feet above the runway and hold it there, it will eventually suddenly drop and land hard. Isn't that stalling?" Nope. It's sinking. You held a constant attitude and the speed decayed. Constant AoA with decreasing airspeed means lift is diminishing. The airplane sinks, and that descending flight path increases the AoA a bit more, adding more drag and increasing the sink. You can get a pretty hard touchdown doing that, but if it actually stalled the nose would have fallen; you couldn't hold it up. Airplanes are sometimes damaged landing like that: not stalled, but a hard landing nonetheless. Airplanes with short, low-aspect-ratio wings are more susceptible to sinking like that. Think Cherokee or Ercoupe or short-wing Piper. Or my Jodel; there's a stinker of a sinker for you. 

Landing at minimum controllable airspeed after a proper approach gives us a whole lot of stuff: Satisfaction that such accomplishment brings. Minimum runway used up. Long tire and brake life. No tangling with the ditch at the end of the runway or the rhubarb along the sides. No busted nosegears and firewalls. No embarrassments. The options of shorter small-town or backcountry strips for camping/fishing/whatever become open to us.  It's worth learning to land well.

 

From Jan Nademlejnsky

I am starting a new aviation era in my life sunset. I bought 20 hour, 2016, Apollo DeltaJet2 with Rotax 912 (80 hp). I saw Apollo trikes last year when I visited trike fly-in in Idaho, USA. The DeltaJet2 looks very sexy and attractive. Since that time, I searched the internet for Apollo trike, but the price of this type of toys is outrageous.

I was lucky to spot ad in Barnstormers. The trike was located in Lyncrest Airport near Winnipeg. The price was still, but much less outrageous, but what the heck. 

I was waiting until snow melted. Month before my AC flight to Winnipeg, I booked 26' U-haul, which is actually 35' long monster. Then the stress started; how to load/unload it, how to tie it down and how to secure it so nobody gets in over night. Track like that in a motel parking lot could be very good attraction for thieves. U-haul guaranteed that the track would be available when I arrive to Winnipeg and if not they would pay me $65. This is not very good guarantee. I was told to call one week before the pick up day. I did, they did not have answer, but told me to call 3 days before and that they will send me confirmation email, then day before... Nothing, nothing. The last day I sent the trike seller to the U-haul location and he verified that the truck is actually waiting for me. I was already in U-haul office in Winnipeg when I received their email.

The truck with only 10,000 km was very dirty inside out. I had no time to argue there, I just signed papers and drove to Lyncrest airport. We loaded the trike with help of another three people and tied it so it could not move during my 2,000 km journey home.

That heavy duty truck was very stiff and every crack in road was major jolt into my body and mainly into my cargo. I have never seen worse roads than in Winnipeg. I felt like driving somewhere in Africa. I definitely worried about my precious cargo. I stopped east of Winnipeg to check my load. I was not very happy. The trike front wheel instead being on the floor was on the front wall with trike at about 45 deg with one prop blade on the floor. It was very unpleasant, especially with no tools, help and in middle of nowhere. Eventually I had to retie everything again to prevent more damage.

I made it to Brandon Motel and park the track with the cargo doors right to the wall, so nobody could get in. I still did not sleep much with all kind of scenarios running through my head. The rest of the trip was uneventful, with another overnight with Calgary relatives.

Right now, the trike would be ready to fly if I did not damage the prop. I am waiting for new one from USA. I have covers still off, because I am doing some modification. I am installing battery charging connector, 12V outlet plug and eventually transponder. I wanted to use my transponder from the AirBorne trike, but it is too long for my available space. I will be ordering different model from UK.

Therefore, my transponder ready to install and use MICRO AIR T2000 will be for sale. It worked perfectly and accurately, but I cannot use it. Here is copy of Aircraft Spruce. To get their transponder to Canada would be more then C$3800. I will be accepting offers.

I received deposit for my AirBorne trike and I promised that I will not fly it. So my last flight was in Apr 4, 2018

 

New in the Buy&Sell in the last month

1948 8F Luscombe      $37,000. OBO

 Lycoming 0320 wide deck,160 HP engine new in 2002 with 1025 Hrs TT and 200 Hrs since rebuild, Remote eng. oil filter, Sensenich 74/60 prop overhauled in 2011. Aircraft stripped, painted inside-out and new windows in 2003,15 gal US wing tanks. Sylflex main gear, flaps, Scott 3200 tail wheel, King KY97a radio, Garmin 320a with Mode C with a new AK350 encoder, Sigtronic intercom, engine driven vacuum system. landing av lights and belly flasher all new tires. Shows well, flown regularly   TT 4224 Hrs.    Lloyd Como lloyd_como@hotmail.com

180425-BS693

Lazair 2-seat ultralight    New price: $6,500.

Lazair 2 seat ultralight aircraft, great fun way to fly, enjoy the open air feeling.  40’ wing span x 14’ overall length x 6’ tall. With 2 – 26 HP KFM electric start motor, all new fuel lines, new plugs, decarbon cylinders, 2 new props 36”x 15 pitch, 2 fuel tank total 12 gallon, dual electric fuel pump, gauges.  Halls airspeed indicator, battery voltage, cylinder head temp, altimeter, vertical speed, compass, turn coordinator, new seats.  Bungee landing gear with 6’ wide stance gear.   Asking price $9,000.CDN   Will deliver within 4 hours flight time(400 KM)  Floats and 0 time KFM also available for additional price.  Located at Chilliwack, BC   Ron Pankonin 604 991 0522 gatesyourway@icloud.com 

180424-BS680

1993 Kitfox III     $35,000.

1993 Kitfox III on Aerocet 1100 amphibs, Rotax 912UL 80HP, 2 blade ground adjustable IVOprop, 580TTSN, Stits Polyfiber, Bendix-King KY97A with PTT on stick, Terra TRT250 transponder with altitude encoder, Pointer 121.5 ELT, intercom, VFR instruments.  Times may change as acft is in use.  Selling for owner due medical.  $35,000 CDN.  Located Lillooet, BC (CYLI), fly it home!  Contact Chris at 250-256-4297 or cell 250-256-8599.   chris.strube@purenote.ca

180424-BS692

Andreasson BA-4B     Now $24,000. OBO

MOTIVATED SELLER!

Also looking for Vans RV-4

The Andreasson BA-4B is a Swedish-designed sport biplane that dates from the mid-1960s.

This BA-4B is an excellent example of the type. It features all-metal construction, superior build craftsmanship, a 0-timed engine, terrific panel and a removable full canopy. It is built for small to medium sized pilots.     The builder, Gerry Theroux, is a retired aircraft maintenance engineer, and his experience with structures and systems on large airliners shows in the build quality and attention to detail that this BA-4B demonstrates.

Aircraft Features

Lycoming 0-235-L2C 118 hp, O SMOH. Overhaul completed in 2015, engine properly preserved in a heated garage or hangar since then.

Will need proper break-in sequence completed. 2000 hour TBO.

Dual P-Mags allow variable and always optimal ignition timing. This translates to exceptional fuel economy and reliability. The ability to use automotive spark plugs saves even more money over having to use aviation spade plugs.

Oil cooler and remote oil filter.

Propeller is also O time SOH.

Trio Avionics EZ-Pilot single axis (roll) autopilot. The EZ-Pilot is slaved to the included Garmin 296 GPS and will intercept and hold a course the pilot selects, or operate autonomously to any heading the pilot selects. It can slave to any GPS featuring standard NMEA data output

Panel mounted Garmin 296 GPS.   An MGL comm radio Mode C transponder.

Standard ASI, altimeter, VSL, fuel gauge, and tachometer. Quad gauge for oil pressure and temp, CHT and EGT.  Full electrics with proper wiring and circuit breakers.   Electric pitch trim with electronic position indicator.  Flaperons, which will also work with the EZ pilot.  Adjustable rudder pedals. Cabin heat and cabin vent cooling.

Panel mounted Garmin 296 GPS

An MGL comm radio

Mode C transponder

Standard ASL altimeter, VSI, fuel gauge, and tachometer

Quad gauge for oil pressure and temp, CHT and EGT

Full electrics with proper wiring and circuit breakers

Electric pitch trim with electronic position indicator

Flaperons, which will also work with the EZ pilot

Adjustable rudder pedals

4 full-span ailerons for exceptional roll control

Fighter plane-style stick grip with switches for comm, trim and autopilot

5-point harness

55 litre fuel tank (14.5 US gal)

Spring steel landing gear, dual brakes and 6.00 x 5 tires

Full swivel tail wheel

Wingtip and strobe lights

Full plans and a set of claw tie-downs

Additionally, the engine needs the initial ground run break-in, plus the standard in-flight break-in to seat the rings and to stabilize oil consumption.

The BA-4B is currently registered as an ultralight aircraft and has not yet flown. As an ultralight, it does not require the standard amateur-built restrictions such as staying within only 25 NM of the home airport for the first 25 hours of flight. The pilot has a lot more freedom to explore the airplane at his or her discretion.

The airplane weighs about 700 lbs empty, and as noted, it will best fit small to medium sized pilots. The rudder pedals are adjustable via turnbuckles, and there is some room for adjustment in the seat

This airplane will have outstanding performance with an excellent power-to- weight ratio, terrific climb and roll rates, and an estimated cruise speed near 150 mph! You won’t find that in other ultralight aircraft.

See this Wikipedia link for the design’s complete history: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreasson_BA-4B

If you feel the BA-4B might be right for you, please contact

George Murray 403-931-1645     george7@hughes.net

180421-BS678

 

J3 CUB with all THE GOOD STUFF !!   $44,000. CDN

2461.7 TT , 158.8 SMOH , 85 HP, 29” Alaska Bush Wheels, 1400 EDO floats, 1500 Federal skis with oversized Teflon bottoms and new bungees and cables, vortex generators, new fabric on wings and tail feathers, new 6 inch Cleveland wheels and brakes, new wing tanks, new sealed lifetime struts ,406 ELT . Amazing performance and fun for all terrain and all seasons. Also comes with a truckload of new in-box parts for rejuvenating the fuselage including new wind screen, (the old one is still in very good condition,) new one-piece cowling, New boot cowl, new floorboards, $1000. worth of paint to match the wings, (note everything is an excellent flying condition but the previous owner was gearing up to make this an as-new aircraft by redoing the fuselage to match the wings and tail. ) This little Cub has all the good stuff and is an absolute joy to fly but my upgrade has been purchased and will be home soon so this whole package has been fairly priced at $44,000. Canadian to get it out of my hangar and into yours! Trevor Larsen 250-788-5336 , trevorlarsen69@icloud.com

80415-BS690

2004 Arrow Quest Ultralight Trike   $19,500. Cdn

It’s spring. Fly for fun. I want a new build project and the wife says...

This Trike is a complete professional ground-up rebuild,  "It Shines"

New Aeros Still 17 wing. Gentle control response. Cruise approx. 50 mph. Training bars. Rotax 503 DCDI E-box, electric and rope start. Dual Bing carbs. Intake silencer. Complete overhaul, new crankshaft, 2 hrs. since break-in. Electric prime & boost pump.  Composite ground adjustable Arplast eco prop. Two seats with dual steering and throttle controls. Nose gear brake. Microair radio. Strobes. Hydraulic/nitrogen filled shocks. Trailer with pod cover for transport. Manuals.

More videos  https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_jrXiwwyAxdusRZgGuoJhA 

Arnie can be contacted by phone or text to 780-832-9750 or

e-mail at arnie5149@yahoo.com

180413-BS689

 Murphy Maverick    $25,000.

With wing extension, 65 Continental. No electric.   Full VFR  panel, c/w skis.   TAT 315.7, engine SMO 66.4 Propeller Culver Valley Eng. 324 hours.  The plane is flown regularly 2 to 3 time week. Great carrying load and use 10 to 12 liter per hour. at 70 to 80 MPH cruise. The plane is base in Drayton Valley  AB    Contact Valerio Giaretta vxgiar@shaw.ca 780-850-2001 or Tom Shroder 780-914-4396  or Dan Pandure (Snow bird Aviation) 780-349-4159 

170627-BS625

Wing covers  $550.

Wing and stabilizer covers for RV-4 or RV-6, like new, used very little. Made by Arctic Covers. 250-306-1757  John. starduster5@icloud.com

180413

1986 Mooney M18X (C-GXTR)

Legendary performance. Responsive, predictable. Stick control. Retractable gear. Fly open canopy. Oh what fun!    Short field operation. High altitude operation. Lots of fuel. 117MPH to 130MPH @75%.    Low cost of ownership (1953 Mooney Mite rebuilt in homebuilt category by AME for his personal aircraft).    683lbs empty, 1025lbs gross. Continental A-65.    364hrs TTSN. 198hrs SMOH. Try your offer (Value equal to mid time C-150). May take something on partial/full trade. kharberg@outlook.com    1(780)679-6549 (Kevin)

180409-BS672

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  Newsletter Editor: Cam at  villeneuve@shaw.ca